Cyprinuscarpio :Koi's are said to be sociable fish to an extent that at the time of feeding they will eat you from your hand. The koi fish is known for its unique colouration and patterns and considered as fast growing varieties plus are said to be tolerating other fishes in the pond. If a pond contains individual koi fish then you may find them living up to 20 to 30 years.
Earlier koi fish were considered to be belonging to the rich market but now the things have got completely changed as now they are bred all over with being less pricy.
Koi or nishikoi had their origin in Asia and Japan's paddy field. Just like other fish varieties koi are also being native of black carp from Asia introduced first by farmers. Other than this we even find then being bred naturally with their off springs being not only black but also pale yellow.
Since many long years the pale yellow koi seemed to be spawning with similar coloured genetic mutation resulting in koi's. We see koi spreading in different areas with Japan knowing as one of the riser of koi fishes. Moreover the koi's of Japan are said to have the best of qualities such as clean skin, red pigmentation etc. While in Israel koi's seem to acquire a lot of value. However general information regarding them is that only one per cent of the koi's are seen in the market while the rest die or get culled within 3 weeks.
The needs of koi
The koi fish are called as pig of the pond showing up many characteristics similar to their ancestors. Koi do not consist of a stomach rather they are found with gut which allows them to digest the diet of omnivore. Since they possess a natural feeding style it is advisable to feed the koi's less and in a continuous manner.
They are considered to be aggressive kinds which is why they need to be kept in pond that are free of plants however the typical koi carps are farmed in mud ponds where we can see scavengers feeding through their smelling sense. If we try to differ the tow that is koi and the ancient carp's then we will find that koi are less wild and hard which gives us an indication that they are easily prone to diseases which is why they need to be kept in ponds that are deep plus in these ponds they will never have any problem in growing in their natural way.
As for temperature we find koi being tolerant enough regarding the changes in temperature but normally they need stable temperature from freezing to 86 degrees while 65F to 75F during spawning period. Related to food koi should be given a diet that will help in their colouration and shape that means a diet that is of premium quality from high protein diet in summers to low protein diet in spring and fall.
Compatibility : A very compatible sort of varieties that can be seen uprooting the plants in the ponds and over compete the small fishes.
Coloration : This is something which is a koi is known for and so we can find then in unique colouration.
Size : The normal growth rate is 3 feet however in normal ponds we can see then growing to 2.
Habitat and pond requirement : High quality water that is filtered properly. They require special care and so in winters are it is important that the pond is at least 3 to 4 feet deep so that fishes can protect themselves from freezing.
Temperature : are tolerable enough to stay in freezing to 86 degrees of temperature.
Hardiness : Ghost koi are still hardy but koi's are not especially when they are of high grade.
Food and feeding : since they are omnivorous commercial dry food is the best for them but do not go by giving worms, prawns and oranges.
Spawning and breeding : They are called as boisterous showing up adhesive eggs but in unplanted ponds spawning activity could result in a lot of physical damaging.
An egg-scattering species which will eat its own eggs. Spawning usually begins at a water temperature of around 20C (68F). Spawning activity is very vigorous and can result in injuries to the fish. The use of spawning brushes (ropes) or mats, or construction of a large floating net (cage) in which selected brood fish can be isolated, is strongly recommended. Eggs hatch in 3-4days at temperatures between 20-22C (68-72F).
Size : Wild carp reach 39-40in (1m). Most Koi are somewhat smaller. Koi measuring above28in (72cm) are officially regarded as Jumbo Koi.
Distribution : Cyprinus carpio originated in the Dunube and other rivers of the Black Sea basin, but it is now found throughout Europe and elsewhere. Barring some escapes or introductions, Koi are not found in the wild.
Habitat : Carp prefer sluggish or still waters, especially warm ponds with abundant vegetation. Koi tolerate a wide variety of conditions, from muddy natural ponds to clinically clean Koi pools.
Temperature : From well below 10C (50F) to above 30C (86F) - but not for extended periods at the higher temperature.
Diet : A wide range of foods, which must regularly inlcude vegetables. Koi especially like regular treats such as prawns, brown bread, lettuce and garden peas. However they cannot digest the outer skin of peas, so crush them and spit the skin out.
MAJOR KOI CATEGORIES
Kohaku : White base colour with red markings
Tancho Sanke : (or Sanke) White base colour with superimposed red and black markings
Showa Sanshoku : (usually refered to as Showa) Black base colour with red and white markings.
Bekko : Black markings on a white, red, or yellow base colour
Utsurimono : White, red or yellow markings on a black base.
Asagi : Blue base with red on the belly, fins and sides of head; top of head is light greyish blue.
Shusui : Similar to the Asagi, but with dark blue colorations restricted to the large Doistu scales; naked areas are light blue, except for the head, which is light greyish blue.
Koromo : White base colour with red markings that are over-laid with darker patterning.
Kawarimono : All other types of non-metallic Koi, including single coloured fish, e.g. Kigoi (yellow fish), almost single-coloured fish, e.g. Hajiro (black fish with white fin edges) and Goshiki (five coloured fish)
Tancho : Single red marking on the top of the head; this classification is reserved for Kohaku, Sanke and Showa Koi that bear this very distinctive head spot.
Hikarimono : (or Ogon) Single coloured fish.
Hikari-Utsurimono : Metallic versions of Utsuri and Showa.
Hikarimoyo-mono : Term embracing all other types of metallic Koi
Kinginrin : Fish having 20 or more reflective/sparkling scales; previously, judging of this category at Koi shows embraced fish of any variety, provided they had the appropriate scalation.
Goshiki : Five coloured Koi classified within the Kawarimono in countries other than Japan.
Doitsu : Doistu-scaled fish are generally classified under their colour variety.